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3DRose

3DRose ASIM Visualization Package 

By virtue & convention, "3D surfaces & surface cuts", generated out of a stack of 2D images are in fact "2D-plus", thereby; these may be considered to carry more information. They can be used to enhance perception of interior anatomy, improve qualitative & quantitative evaluation in diagnosis and aid in treatment, especially planning surgery besides assessing treatment response. Fastness, easy-to- use common-platform, friendliness in operation, use of well crafted references for quick appreciation of output results are carefully addressed in ASIM to make "3D" evaluation a routine practice and as the "2D" is in the present practice in the field of diagnostic imaging. Tools and techniques give ASIM its hallmark of simplicity & extreme operational flexibility. 

Surface construction: 

Both "IsoValue" and "volume rendering" techniques singly or in combination are used for constructing surfaces from a volume data i.e. "stack of 2D images" both original and processed with any image operations. 

Surface construction
Surface shaded display (SSD)

Surface shaded display (SSD)

Images of volume data having gray scale range defined by two limit values can be used to construct a surface. Here the foremost Voxel falling within the defined gray scale range are highlighted and displayed, what is known as "SSD" and are used to visualize contrast filled vessels or bone better. 
The view direction can be manipulated by a mouse or a 3D cross hair. Different views can be captured as 2D DICOM images and archived as designated series. 
A Note however is made that the gray-scale values in the display do not represent the measured values, and are only intended to provide 3D effect and can not be used to calculate or distinguish various tissues like calcium from contrast medium in the CT images. 

Volume rendering technique (VRT):

Various organs and tissue structures like bone, blood vessels can be differentially displayed in 3D with color mapping by assigning the initial pixel value (HU value, MR signal value to Voxel and manipulating parameters like transparency, shading, and color transition to create 3D effect. ASIM utilizes cropping interior/exterior to execute targeted rendering or to eliminate unwanted regions from the field of view like discarding bone regions falling on blood vessels thereby making evaluation of either structures better. 

Volume rendering technique (VRT)

Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP)

Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP): 

Greatest intensity falling in selected view through the volume data can be projected into a surface irrespective of their position in the stack of images to visualize specific structures like blood vessels. It is especially helpful in displaying contrast medium information in vessels. Selective definition of VOI (volume of interest) or selective omission of unwanted VOI prior to MIP is elegantly addressed in 3DRose. 

VOI by choice unlimited:

The 2D data set (volume data) can be a whole image of the entire series or arbitrarily selected images in the series; fixed part of images with either regular or irregular region of interest (ROI), or both together as defined by the user. .All these induce greater flexibility in extracting various image objects to form an input in 3D surface construction. 

Surface/s Display: 

Great flexibility has been provided to display multiple surfaces together in the same workspace with the capability to perform all 3D operations. 

3D tools

ASIM not only provides tools that are used for manipulating volume data for exquisite 3D visualization but also assist in the quantitative analysis of a volume data. ASIM uses tools like "Clip plane" and "clip box" that provide great flexibility in handling volume data swiftly in an organized manner with positional reference of body geometry and making cutting, chopping /slicing in any direction with any increments, display of multiple surfaces together with interactive rotation etc. thereby making 3D visualization & evaluation a pleasure . Tools like 3D-cross-hair, 3D grid, and tools for volume arithmetic, etc .on the other hand make 3D evaluation quantitative and clinically meaningful.

Cut plane: 

Either single or multiple in all three orthogonal planes can be operational at a time, up to any depth in the volume data or view plane are seen along with the uncut surface. The option for adding surface on any cut plane adds further to the better viewing of depth with surface information. Cut planes can be operational in the oblique direction to get oblique cuts. Note may be made that the thickness of the cut plane is always limited by the pixel dimension.

Multiplanar Reconstruction (MPR): 

With MPR secondary images of the other orthogonal planes or any oblique planes can be generated from a volume data set. We can construct either single images or image series. By moving through the volume data quickly using the 3D cross hair or mouse we can interactively generate slices in any arbitrary plane. Simultaneous viewing of images in three orthogonal planes at the point of "3D cross hair" and its positional information displayed interactively provides great ability to evaluate the VOI in the 3D space and can help surgery planning. Note: The minimum slice thickness of an MPR image is one Voxel. 

Cut box: 

Dimension of "Cut box" on the other hand is user selectable. Surface can be cut in any arbitrary orientation to generate "thick slices"of desired thickness. The result can be displayed with the "surface interior" where surfaces are constructed around the cut out or with "surface exterior" which is the remaining part of the surface of volume data.

Cut box

Surgery Planning 

Flexible Maneuvering of cut plane and cut box tools in ASIM allows virtual surgery rehearsal friendly 

Auto Cut: "Auto cut" allows" generation of a desired number of surface cuts in a pre defined fashion either online or in the background and get added to the database as 2D DICOM images automatically. It can greatly reduce the direct involvement of the user in generating a large number of 3D-surface-cuts quickly. Archived 3D surfaces as 2D DICOM images generated by auto cut can be printed in DICOM printer or any 3D surface/s can be captured on laser printing as hard copy Note: To get the desired clinically useful 3D surface cuts, parameters in the auto cut option need to be set by the user on the basis of experience. 

3D cross hair

3D cross hair: The lines through the cross hair represent the cut lines and the resultant two slice planes are perpendicular to each other in the standard view. The intersection of the cut lines denotes the Voxel position in the 3D space. Simultaneous display of sections in three orthogonal planes also aids in surgery planning. 


3D grid: Overlaying of a 3D grid over the reconstructed surface provides a quick overview of relative size of VOI. User defined calibration of grid size can further improve accuracy of quantification. 
Volumetric: ASIM calculates the size of VOI and expresses the value in cm3. Results of multiple VOI can be displayed simultaneously.

Surface distance: It is often useful to measure the distance over the constructed surface in 3D space. In fact this is the distance the surgeons often use as reference to probe into 3D object like head at depth.

Surface distance

Features of 3DRose

Volume Visualisation and Evaluation

  • IsoValue Surface Construction for a specified range

  • MIP Maximum Intensity Projection

  • Multiplanar Reconstruction

  • Used Defined VRT Gallery for Transfer and Gradient function

  • Annotation for images and surfaces

  • Multiple Views (surface and three orthogonal views ) on a single screen

  • Overlay of single or multiple Polygonal Surface (IsoValue Surface, ROI Surface) Volume

  • Rendered Surfaces and Voxel Data

  • Export of scene in various file formats like VRML JPEG TIFF BMP etc

  • Stereo Visualisation indifferent user Interaction styles

Measurement and Analysis

  • Distance and area on 2D Image and on Volume Image

  • Single and Multiple volume calculation

  • Density profile

  • 3DGrid

  • 3D Cursor for Voxel position and intensity value 

  • Shortest distance on surface

  • ROI(Region of Interest) square, Rectangle.Circle, polygon, Cropping, MovingROI in3D

  • Statistical Image Analysis : Mean Max.Min , Deviation, Intensity, and Gradient

Image Processing 

  • Windowing with preset values for different organs

  • Histogram and profile analysis,Grid Reference, Dynamic Evaluation, time intensity and density graph 

  • Segmentation (watershed, Region Growing, Threshold, and filters (noise reduction, edge enhancement)

 

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